Public vs Private Blockchain: Unveiling the Better Choice for Electronic Voting

Explore the comparative merits of public vs private blockchain in electronic voting, and discover why public blockchain emerges as the superior choice.


In recent years, blockchain technology has transcended its origins as the backbone of cryptocurrency and burgeoned into a transformative force across various sectors. One such domain ripe for blockchain-induced reformation is the realm of electronic voting. The immutable and transparent nature of blockchain presents a viable solution to the perennial challenges that beleaguer electronic voting systems, such as voter fraud and lack of transparency. At the heart of this technological renaissance lies a critical deliberation: the choice between public and private blockchains.

Each type of blockchain carries a unique set of features and implications, especially when applied to the sensitive and crucial process of electronic voting. A public blockchain is characterized by its open, decentralized nature, allowing anyone to participate and verify transactions. On the other hand, a private blockchain is more centralized, with permissions required to participate in the network, often governed by a single entity or a consortium.

This article endeavors to dissect the nuanced differences between public and private blockchains in the context of electronic voting. Through a meticulous exploration, we aim to unveil why a public blockchain may present a more robust and transparent solution for e-voting systems, ensuring that the democratic ethos is upheld securely and transparently.


Understanding Blockchain

The genesis of blockchain technology can be traced back to 2008, when it was introduced as the underpinning mechanism for Bitcoin, the pioneer cryptocurrency. However, over the years, the potential of blockchain has unfurled beyond digital currencies, finding resonance in various sectors owing to its core attributes of decentralization, transparency, and immutability.

Blockchain, in essence, is a distributed ledger technology (DLT) that records transactions across numerous computers in such a way that the registered data cannot be altered retroactively. This ensures a high level of data integrity and transparency. Each block in the chain encapsulates a number of transactions, and is linked to the preceding block, thereby forming a chain of blocks.

When transposed to the domain of electronic voting, blockchain technology burgeons as a tool of paramount significance. The traditional e-voting systems often grapple with issues such as lack of transparency, susceptibility to tampering, and voter fraud. Blockchain, with its immutable and transparent nature, emerges as a panacea for these perennial challenges. It can ensure that once a vote is cast, it is recorded securely and cannot be altered or deleted, providing a transparent and immutable record of votes.

Moreover, blockchain can also foster voter anonymity, provide a verifiable audit trail, and reduce the cost and complexity associated with managing elections, while enhancing the trust and integrity associated with the electoral process. The intrinsic properties of blockchain promise to imbue electronic voting systems with a level of security and transparency that is pivotal for the sustenance of democratic processes in the digital age.

In the forthcoming discourse, we will delve deeper into the dichotomy of public and private blockchains, and ascertain which aligns better with the ethos and requisites of a robust, secure, and transparent electronic voting system.

Private Blockchain

Private blockchains, also known as permissioned blockchains, operate within a more centralized framework compared to their public counterparts. In a private blockchain, access is restricted to a specific group of individuals or entities, often governed by a single organization or a consortium. Here's a deeper look into the aspects of private blockchain in the context of electronic voting:

Definition and Characteristics:

  • Access Control: Private blockchains necessitate permission for participation. Only authorized entities can join the network, conduct transactions, and access the data stored on the blockchain.
  • Centralized Governance: The governance in private blockchains is usually centralized with a single entity or a consortium overseeing the network operations, including who gets access and how the blockchain protocols are maintained.
  • Speed and Efficiency: Due to fewer participants and a more streamlined consensus mechanism, private blockchains tend to offer higher transaction speeds and operational efficiency.

Application in Electronic Voting:

  • Controlled Environment: Private blockchains provide a controlled environment which can be deemed necessary for sensitive processes like voting, where regulatory compliance and data privacy are paramount.
  • Identity Verification: The permissioned nature allows for a robust identity verification process before participants can cast their votes, ensuring that only eligible voters are part of the electoral process.
  • Auditability: The restricted access facilitates easier auditability as the number of transactions is manageable and the identity of participants is known.

Benefits and Drawbacks:

  • Benefits: Enhanced control, privacy, and efficiency are among the primary benefits of private blockchains. They also allow for compliance with regulatory requirements and provide a structured environment for auditing and accountability.
  • Drawbacks: On the flip side, the centralized nature of private blockchains can be a detractor as it poses a risk to the decentralized ethos of blockchain. This centralization can also be a point of vulnerability, potentially undermining the security and transparency of the voting process.

Private blockchains may seem like a viable option for electronic voting due to the controlled environment they offer. However, this control comes at the cost of reduced transparency and potential manipulation, which are critical concerns in electoral processes. The ensuing section will explore public blockchains and how they compare to private blockchains, especially in addressing the intrinsic challenges of electronic voting.

Public Blockchain

Public blockchains, often termed as permissionless blockchains, stand as a paradigm of decentralization. Unlike private blockchains, they are open to anyone, and every participant has the opportunity to engage in network activities like transaction verification. Here’s a more comprehensive examination of public blockchain in relation to electronic voting:

Definition and Characteristics:

  • Open Access: Public blockchains are accessible to anyone without any restrictions. This open access fosters a truly decentralized network where individuals can participate freely.
  • Decentralized Governance: Governance in public blockchains is distributed among the participants. This decentralization minimizes the risk of manipulation or control by a single entity.
  • Transparency and Immutability: All transactions on a public blockchain are visible to every network participant, promoting transparency. Additionally, once a transaction is recorded, it cannot be altered or deleted, ensuring immutability.

Application in Electronic Voting:

  • Transparency and Trust: Public blockchains can significantly enhance transparency and trust in electronic voting. Every vote is recorded on a public ledger, making the electoral process more transparent and verifiable.
  • Security: The decentralized nature of public blockchains makes them highly resistant to hacking and fraudulent activities, which is crucial for secure voting.
  • Voter Anonymity: While transactions are transparent, public blockchains can be designed to protect voter anonymity, ensuring a private and secure voting experience.

Benefits and Drawbacks:

  • Benefits: Decentralization, transparency, and enhanced security are the cornerstone benefits of public blockchains. They also foster a sense of community trust, as no single entity has control over the network.
  • Drawbacks: On the downside, public blockchains can face scalability issues, potentially leading to slower transaction times during high-traffic periods. Additionally, the open nature could present challenges in complying with regulatory and data privacy requirements.

Public blockchains, with their inherent transparency and decentralization, provide a robust framework for creating secure and fair electronic voting systems. They address many of the challenges that traditional e-voting systems face, like lack of transparency and susceptibility to fraud. The next section will delve into a comparative analysis between public and private blockchains, underscoring why public blockchains could be the superior choice for electronic voting.

Comparative Analysis

The juxtaposition of public and private blockchains unveils a spectrum of differences, each bearing its unique implications when deployed in electronic voting systems. This section aims to draw a comparative analysis based on crucial parameters such as transparency, security, accessibility, and trust.


  • Private Blockchain: In a private blockchain, transparency is limited to the authorized participants. The centralized governance might obscure certain data, potentially affecting the transparency integral to a fair electoral process.
  • Public Blockchain: Public blockchains epitomize transparency. Every transaction, including votes, is visible to all network participants, fostering a transparent electoral process.


  • Private Blockchain: While private blockchains have controlled access which can enhance security, the centralized nature could be a vulnerability, making them susceptible to insider threats.
  • Public Blockchain: The decentralized consensus mechanisms in public blockchains make them inherently secure against malicious attacks, ensuring the integrity of votes.


  • Private Blockchain: Accessibility is restricted in private blockchains, which might be seen as a hurdle to inclusive voting.
  • Public Blockchain: The open-access nature of public blockchains promotes inclusivity, allowing anyone to participate in the voting process.


  • Private Blockchain: Trust is often vested in the governing entity or consortium, which could be a point of contention, especially if the governing body lacks neutrality.
  • Public Blockchain: Trust is distributed and built into the system itself in public blockchains. The decentralized and transparent nature fosters trust among participants.

Real-World Examples:

  • Delving into real-world examples can provide tangible insights. For instance, the use of public blockchain in Estonia’s e-governance initiatives demonstrates the practical benefits of transparency and security in a voting scenario.

The comparative analysis underscores that the choice between public and private blockchain is not merely a technical decision but one with profound implications on the democratic ethos of electronic voting. The decentralized, transparent, and inclusive nature of public blockchains makes them a compelling choice for fostering trust and integrity in electronic voting systems.

Why Public Blockchain is a Better Choice for E-Voting

The essence of democracy rests on the transparency, integrity, and inclusivity of elections. Delving into the dynamics of public and private blockchains, it becomes evident that public blockchain aligns better with these fundamental democratic principles, especially in the context of electronic voting. Here are some reasons underpinning the preference for public blockchain:


Decentralization lies at the heart of public blockchain, eliminating centralized control points that can be exploited or manipulated. This decentralization broadens trust in the electoral process, a crucial element for the legitimacy of elections.

Transparency and Verifiability:

With a public blockchain, every vote is recorded transparently and is verifiable by all network participants. This intrinsic transparency fosters verifiability and enables voters to ascertain the integrity of the electoral process.

Enhanced Security:

The open and decentralized nature of public blockchains, coupled with robust consensus mechanisms, offers exceptional resilience against malicious attacks and fraudulent attempts, thus ensuring the security and integrity of votes.


Public blockchains promote inclusivity by allowing everyone to participate in the electoral process without unduly restrictive barriers. This inclusivity is fundamental to ensuring that the electoral process faithfully reflects the will of the populace.

Adherence to Democratic Principles:

Public blockchains embody democratic principles of transparency, openness, and fairness. By decentralizing governance and allowing open verification, they align more closely with the democratic ideal than private blockchains.

Continuous Innovation:

The ecosystem of public blockchains is often rich in innovation owing to an open and global community of developers and enthusiasts. This continuous innovation can lead to improved solutions for challenges associated with electronic voting.

Public blockchain presents itself as a technological advancement aligned with core democratic values. It paves the way for more robust, transparent, and reliable e-voting systems, reaffirming citizens’ trust in the integrity of the electoral process.


The discourse surrounding blockchain technology in electronic voting extends beyond mere technological innovation; it delves into the realm of bolstering democratic ethos in the digital age. Through the lens of comparison between private and public blockchains, it becomes evident that the latter emerges as a robust scaffold for constructing secure, transparent, and inclusive e-voting systems.

Public blockchains, with their decentralized governance, open access, and immutable recording of votes, address the perennial challenges haunting traditional electronic voting systems. They transcend the boundaries of controlled environments provided by private blockchains, opening the gates to a more transparent and verifiable electoral process, thereby fostering a stronger foundation of trust among the electorate.

Our solution, anchored on public blockchain, embodies these principles, offering a secure and transparent platform for electronic voting. It is a stride towards redefining the electoral processes, making them more in tune with the democratic ideals of transparency, inclusivity, and integrity.

As we venture into the future, the amalgamation of blockchain technology with electronic voting systems beckons a new era of democratic engagements. It invites stakeholders, policymakers, and technocrats to explore and embrace the potential of public blockchain in transcending the conventional hurdles of e-voting, ensuring that every vote is not just counted, but also trusted.

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